Xoloitzcuintli – Facts and Traits Of The Mexican Hairless Dog


The Xoloitzcuintli, commonly referred to as The Mexican hairless dog, is a breed of dog that originated in Mexico. This breed has a unique appearance, characterized by its hairlessness and wrinkled skin. This is an ancient breed that was highly regarded by the Aztecs, who believed that it had healing powers.

They have been around for over 3,000 years and were highly valued by the Aztecs, who believed that they had healing powers and used them for medicinal purposes. In modern times, thy has gained popularity as a companion dog and has become recognized by various kennel clubs worldwide.

In this article, we will explore the fascinating characteristics of the Xoloitzcuintli, including their history, appearance, temperament, and more. Also, Read – Thai Ridgeback: A Guide to Their History, Care, and Personality

Breed Name:Xoloitzcuintli (Mexican Hairless Dog)
Size:Toy, Miniature, and Standard sizes
Height (at shoulder):Toy: 9-14 inches (23-36 cm)
Miniature: 14-18 inches (36-46 cm)
Standard: 18-23 inches (46-58 cm)
Weight:Toy: up to 9 pounds (4 kg)
Miniature: 10-18 pounds (4.5-8 kg)
Standard: 20-31 pounds (9-14 kg)
Coat Type:Hairless or coated (smooth or coated)
Coat Colors:Black, gray, bronze, or red
Life Expectancy:12-14 years
Temperament:Intelligent, loyal, affectionate,
alert, and protective
Activity Level:Moderate
Grooming Needs:Minimal (hairless variety)
Regular grooming (coated variety)
Health Issues:Skin problems, hip dysplasia,
eye problems, dental issues

What is a Xoloitzcuintli?

The Xoloitzcuintli, pronounced “show-low-eats-QUEENT-lee,” is a breed of dog that comes in three sizes: toy, miniature, and standard. They are also known as the Mexican Hairless Dog, or simply Xolo. The Xolo has a distinctive appearance due to their lack of fur, although they may have small amounts of hair on their head, tail, and feet.

The Mexican Hairless Dog

History of The Mexican Hairless Dog

The Mexican Hairless dog has a long and fascinating history that dates back to ancient Mexico. The Aztecs, Mayans, and Toltecs revered these dogs, considering them sacred and believing that they had healing powers. The dogs were often used in religious ceremonies and were believed to be able to guide the souls of the dead through the afterlife.

When the Spanish conquistadors arrived in Mexico in the 16th century, they were initially repulsed by the hairless dogs. However, they soon realized the dogs’ value as hunters and guard dogs, and began breeding them with other European breeds. This led to the near extinction of the purebred Xoloitzcuintli.

In the early 20th century, Mexican artist Diego Rivera began a movement to preserve the purebred Xoloitzcuintli. Today, the breed is still considered rare and is only found in small numbers in Mexico and the United States.

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Physical Characteristics

Xoloitzcuintli dogs are a unique breed with distinct physical characteristics. Here are some of their notable features:


They come in three different sizes: toy, miniature, and standard. Toy Xolos typically weigh between 5 and 15 pounds, miniature Xolos weigh between 15 and 30 pounds, and standard Xolos weigh between 30 and 55 pounds.


The most distinctive feature of the dog is their hairless body, although some Xolos do have a short, sleek coat. The hairless variety can come in a range of colors, including black, gray, bronze, and red.

Body Structure

Xolo dogs have a lean, muscular body with a deep chest and a long, tapered tail. They have long, slim legs and a streamlined head with almond-shaped eyes and large, erect ears.


Due to their hairless nature, this dogs have unique skin characteristics. Their skin can range from smooth and soft to wrinkled and textured. They are also more prone to sunburn and skin irritations, so owners should take care to their skin.

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Temperament and Personality

This dogs are known for their loyalty and affection towards their families. They are intelligent and quick learners, but can also be stubborn and independent. They are typically reserved with strangers, but can be friendly and outgoing with people they know well. Here are some key characteristics of the Xolo’s personality:



This dogs are known for their strong bonds with their owners and their affectionate personalities. They thrive on attention and love to be close to their family members.


They are intelligent and easy to train. They are quick learners and respond well to positive reinforcement training methods.


They have a natural protective instinct and may be wary of strangers. They make excellent watchdogs and will alert their owners to any potential threats.


This dogs are independent thinkers and may be stubborn at times. They require firm, consistent training and socialization from an early age to prevent problem behaviors.


They are fiercely loyal to their owners and will go to great lengths to protect and defend them.


This dog breeds are active and energetic, and require daily exercise to stay healthy and happy. They enjoy a variety of activities, including walks, runs, and playing fetch.

Overall, the breed with a unique and charming personality. They make loyal, affectionate companions for owners who are willing to invest the time and effort required to train and socialize them properly.

Health and Care

The Mexican Hairless dog, is a generally healthy breed with a lifespan of around 12-14 years. However, like all breeds, they are susceptible to certain health issues. Here are some key considerations for the health and care:

Xoloitzcuintli Puppy

Skin Care:

This dog breeds require special care for their skin, which can be sensitive and prone to dryness. Regular moisturizing and sun protection are important to keep their skin healthy.

Dental Care:

They have a unique set of teeth and require regular dental care to prevent tooth decay and gum disease.


The Mexican Hairless Dogs are active and energetic, and require daily exercise to stay healthy and happy. A variety of activities, including walks, runs, and playtime, can help keep them in good physical and mental shape.


A high-quality, balanced diet is essential for the health of this dogs. Owners should consult with their veterinarian to determine the best diet for their individual dog’s needs.


Like all dogs, This dog breeds require regular vaccinations to prevent infectious diseases.

Health issues:

This dog breeds may be prone to certain health issues, including hip dysplasia, eye problems, and skin allergies. Regular veterinary check-ups can help detect and treat any health issues early.


They require minimal grooming, as their hairless skin does not shed. Regular bathing and nail trimming are important to maintain their hygiene and overall health.

Theydogs are generally healthy and low-maintenance, but require specific care for their skin and teeth. Owners who provide proper care and attention can expect their Xolo to live a long and happy life.

Training and Exercise

The Xoloitzcuintli is an intelligent and active breed that requires regular exercise and training to stay healthy and happy. Here are some key considerations for training and exercise:


The dogs require early socialization to prevent problem behaviors such as fearfulness and aggression. Introducing them to a variety of people, places, and other animals at a young age can help them develop into confident and well-adjusted adults.

Positive Reinforcement:

They respond well to positive reinforcement training methods, such as clicker training and treats. Harsh or punitive training methods can cause fear and anxiety in these sensitive dogs.

Basic Obedience:

Basic obedience training, such as sit, stay, and come, is important for all dogs, including the dogs. These commands can help keep them safe and prevent problem behaviors.


This dog breeds require daily exercise to stay healthy and happy. A variety of activities, such as walks, runs, and playtime, can help keep them in good physical and mental shape.

Mental Stimulation:

This dog breeds are intelligent and require mental stimulation as well as physical exercise. Puzzle toys, obedience training, and agility courses are all great ways to challenge their minds and keep them engaged.

Training Challenges:

This dogs can be independent and stubborn at times, which can make training challenging. Consistency and patience are key, and owners should be prepared to invest time and effort into their dog’s training and socialization.

This dog breeds are intelligent and active dogs that thrive on exercise and training. Proper socialization and positive reinforcement training methods can help them develop into well-adjusted and obedient adult dogs.

Pros and Cons of Owning a Xoloitzcuintli Dog

Like any breed of dog, there are both pros and cons to owning a Xolo. Here are some things to consider before bringing one into your home:


  • Low grooming needs: This dogs require little grooming compared to other breeds, making them a good choice for people who are short on time or money.
  • Affectionate and loyal: This dog breeds are known for their strong bonds with their families and make loyal, affectionate companions.
  • Unique appearance: The hairless body of the dog is striking and may appeal to people who want a dog that stands out from the crowd.
  • Good health: They are generally healthy and have a long lifespan, with some living up to 20 years.


  • High prey drive: They were originally bred for hunting, and as such, they may have a strong prey drive and be aggressive towards smaller animals.
  • Separation anxiety: They can become very attached to their owners and may experience separation anxiety when left alone.
  • Barking: This dogs have a tendency to bark excessively, which can be a problem in urban areas where noise ordinances are in place.
  • Rare breed: This dog breeds are still considered a rare breed and may be difficult to find, particularly in some areas of the world.

Diet and Nutrition

A healthy diet is important for the overall health and well-being of Xoloitzcuintli dogs. Here are some key considerations for their diet and nutrition:

  • Protein:
    • They require a high-protein diet to support their lean muscle mass and active lifestyle. Good sources of protein include lean meats such as chicken, turkey, and fish.
  • Carbohydrates:
    • Carbohydrates are an important energy source for this dogs, but should be consumed in moderation to avoid weight gain. Good sources of carbohydrates include whole grains and vegetables.
  • Fats:
    • Fats are important for this dog breeds dogs to maintain healthy skin and coat, as well as support their energy needs. Good sources of fats include fish oil and coconut oil.
  • Portion Control:
    • They are prone to obesity, so portion control is important to maintain a healthy weight. Owners should measure their dog’s food and avoid overfeeding.
  • Water:
    • This dogs require access to fresh, clean water at all times to stay hydrated and healthy.

Xoloitzcuintli Dogs in Pop Culture

With their unique appearance and history, have been featured in various forms of pop culture over the years. Here are some notable examples:

Film and Television

The dog breed has been featured in several movies and TV shows. In the Disney film “Coco” (2017), a Xoloitzcuintli dog named Dante serves as the loyal companion to the film’s main character, Miguel. The breed was also featured in the popular TV show “Breaking Bad” (2008-2013), where the character Jesse Pinkman owns a Xoloitzcuintli named Wendy.

Art and Design

This dog breeds have been a popular subject in art and design for centuries. In ancient Aztec and Mayan cultures, They were revered as sacred animals and often depicted in art. Today, the breed is still a popular subject in contemporary art and design, with many artists creating works featuring the unique appearance of the Xolo.


This dogs have even made an appearance in the sports world. In 2017, a Xoloitzcuintli named “Cali” became the first of her breed to compete in the Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show, one of the most prestigious dog shows in the world.

This dog breeds have made their mark in pop culture in various ways, from film and television to art and sports. Their unique appearance and history continue to capture the imagination of people around the world.


Do Xolos dogs still exist?

Yes, Xolos dogs still exist today. They are recognized as a breed by many kennel clubs around the world, including the American Kennel Club (AKC), the United Kennel Club (UKC), and the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI).

Are Xolo dogs ideal as pets?

Xolo dogs can make great pets for the right owners. They are known for being loyal, affectionate, and intelligent, but they also have unique traits and needs that may not be suitable for everyone. Prospective owners should do their research and consider factors such as the breed’s energy level, temperament, and grooming requirements before deciding if a Xoloitzcuintli is the right pet for them.

Are Xolos rare?

Although Xolos dogs have a rich history and unique reputation, they are still considered quite rare in the United States. Therefore, you may not have had the opportunity to meet one in person. However, by continuing to read, you can learn more about this fascinating and uncommon breed, considered one of the most unusual dogs in the world.

Do Xolo dogs bark?

Like all dogs, Xolo dogs are capable of barking. However, they are not known for excessive barking and are generally considered to be a relatively quiet breed. As with any dog, training and socialization can play a role in a Xoloitzcuintli’s behavior, including barking tendencies.


This is a unique and ancient breed with a rich history and remarkable characteristics. They are intelligent, loyal, and affectionate dogs that make great family pets. While their hairless appearance may not be for everyone, those who appreciate their unique beauty will find a wonderful companion in the Xoloitzcuintli.

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